Boğazköy (Hattusas) ruin, Corum Province of Turkey is located 82 km southwest of Ankara is 208 km in length. In the center of the old core of the Hittite state Boğazköy (Hattusas) River valley, the southern tip of ruin Budaközü stream, 300 m high plain surrounded by numerous rock masses and dividing the north and west slopes of the mountain is limited to the deep slopes. Open to the north and other parts of the northern part of the city surrounded by city walls outside.
Hattusas ruin and the world for the first time introduced in 1834, was visited by Charles Texier. This is the first time established a link between the Hittite state remains Sayce person. By this time it was thought that the Hittites in Syria center. Carl Humann in 1882, Otto Puchstein have come together for the first time with the Boğazköy made public a plan to work. Currently, the Pergamon Museum also put up Yazılıkaya patterns. E Chantre first test excavations carried out in 1893-1894, and in 1905 traveled to the Makridi and H. Winckler Bogazköy conducted excavations, which continued until 1917. By Kurt Bittel on behalf of the German Archaeological Institute in 1932, systematic excavations were started during World War II After a while, re-started and continued uninterrupted until 1978 studies. From 1978 until 1993, led by Dr. Peter Neve Excavations undertaken since 1994 by Dr. Jurgen Seeher.
Boğazköy (Hattusas) III thousand BC ruins seen from the settlement. This period was found to be small and fortified settlements in and around Büyükkale. 19 and 18 th centuries BC Assyrian Trade Colonies Period settlements in the Lower City is the city for the first time on behalf of the written documents of that era were found. Hattusas the first growth period came to an end by a large fire, this fire should be responsible for the Kuşşara King Anitta. According to the documents in the years immediately after this destruction, the resettlement of about 1700 BC, was the capital of the Hittite state in the 1600s and Hattuşaş, the founder of the origin, just like Anitta Kuşşara I Hattuşili.
After the development of the capital city at the tip of Hattusas were monumental structuring, 2 km wide, city palaces, temples and neighborhoods become the BC 13th century is attained. Hattusas, the last years of the empire during the second development both inside and outside has been active in three major Hittite king. They Hattusili III, his son, and his son, II, IV Tudhalia Suppiluliuma. Şuppiluliuma’s II period (1190 BC), Hittite state was demolished due to the economic crisis and domestic turmoil Bogazkoy four centuries has been abandoned. Then, the Phrygians here (mid-8th century BC) settled. Hellenistic and Roman Period (BC 3 – 3rd century AD) surrounded by walls of a small principality Hattusas center, a village in the Byzantine state.
Hattusas “Upper City” is known as cutting with a floor area larger than 1 km ², sloped land. Late 13th century BC, the development of this area of the city was the scene of the Age of Empire. Only a part of the Upper City consists of temples and sacred places. Top Cities in a wide arc into the south, it is equipped with a wall, walls are available on the 5-door. At the southern end of the city wall and bastion of the city with the sphinx and the door is located at the highest point. The other four eastern and the western end of the south wall, opposite King’s Gate and Lion Gate is located.
Upper City in the construction of three phases. The first stage coincides with the construction of the first walls. The second stage, after the destruction of the very first re-construction and final form appears with the city of temples. In the last phase in the renovation of the existing buildings and new construction has a non-religious purposes other than repairs. Upper City “The Temple Quarter, known as” the sphinx door; Nişantepe and extends to Sarıkale. Of the various states, many temples were uncovered in this area. The general character of the temple plans, entered through a courtyard and a narrow front space contain a structure with a deep main space group of the cult room. The materials obtained from the temples divided into five groups.
The entrance to the Upper City, located just in front of Büyükkale Nişantepe and Güneykale is remarkable, and this structuring after the Hittites in the 7-6 century BC Phrygian settlement which dates. Analyzed in three parts according to the topography of the Hittites: Büyükkale southern passage (viaduct), Upper City to the north side of the road and Nişantepe Güneykale with pre-settlement of the residential area of the plateau.
North and south of the West Building, an important building outside the building and the Palace Archives. A large fire destroyed two basement floors of the building is thought to be on the slope. Approximately 3300 of these two in the basement of cuneiform tablets were found bulla and 30. Bullae 2/3 per cent according to the chronological list I Suppiluliuma large king seals from the last king of Hattusas, and his grandson II. Suppiluliuma up to represent the kings. Next to the king, queen seals seals were revealed. Güneykale Suppiluliuma construction was carried out by the II. This area has a large pond and three building three separate points. Room 1 and 2, the so-called two structures standing room 2, the pond is located in the northern corner of the west.
Single room with shrinking inward, narrowing has a parabola-shaped dome. Room 1 was found in the in situ little residue. Three of the walls decorated with reliefs of Room 2. Turned to the left against the wall adorned with pictures, long dress has a figure. There is a winged sun disk on a round head, Litus in his left hand, his right hand holds the ankh motif. To Şuppiluliuma are embossed on the eastern wall. Against the west wall is a hieroglyphic inscription. Excavations in the historical site of Hattusas Büyükkale 13-14 century BC, the Hittite kings palace fortification to protect the structure and the properties of them has the light of day. South-west of the entrance gate of the castle walls, the technique of chest wall was built.
Büyükkale be seen as a whole, the structure of the palace, of different sizes and types of structures that arise as a result of excavations, a large interior spaces, courtyards and pillared galleries connected to each other through the whole form of the castle. The castle archive rooms, storage rooms, a large reception hall, water, buildings and holy places are on the cult. After the construction of the castle ruins of the Hittite Phrygian found.
One of the most important architectural areas Bogazköy Big Temple. (No. 1 Temple) north of the city is the center of Hattusas Big Temple, Hati’s storm god and the sun goddess of Arinna house was built as the city. Two aditon temple, and the temple around the cobbled streets, squares and store rooms behind them in the four directions of these paths are opened. The Great Temple, Lower City neighborhoods are separated by a wall of temonos.
Great oratory built on a stone terrace, as well as a sacred center, is also used as a center of economic magasine revealed large cubes understood. However, the east of the temple is an archive here also revealed the presence of tablets. Converted into secondary structures around the great temple which is important. The most important one is the home of the slope. Size, plan, and the occurrence of multi-level attention.